13th July 2024

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One other day, one other assessment of a significant hydrogen for vitality report which doesn’t stand as much as the slightest scrutiny. Sadly, this one is from the EU’s Joint Analysis Centre (JRC), its science and data service which employs scientists to hold out analysis with a purpose to present impartial scientific recommendation and assist to European Union coverage.

Policymakers who learn the splash web page or coverage transient could be left with the impression that inexperienced hydrogen could possibly be manufactured and piped from Ukraine or northern Africa for a mixed price per kilogram of maybe €3. A detailed learn, using life like assumptions, and comparisons to way more credible reviews makes it clear that industrial hydrogen supply would price nearer to €8 / kg earlier than taxes or earnings and transportation hydrogen would price round €14 / kg earlier than taxes or earnings. The report’s summaries current solely the rosiest parts of a research which deliberately lowered major price assumptions to reach at low-cost imported hydrogen.

This report was a deep disservice to coverage discussions in Europe and clearly not aligned with the JRC’s mission.

How Does The JRC Examine To Different Analysis Organizations With Dangerous Hydrogen Research?

The JRC just isn’t a company like DNV, the place the European pipeline operator affiliation will pay them off to provide a horrible report displaying that inexperienced hydrogen manufactured offshore and piped into the commercial sectors of Europe could be the most cost effective option to get hydrogen, a report I tore aside just a few months in the past.

It’s not the Rocky Mountain Institute, which whereas traditionally very influential and does good work at present, doesn’t peer assessment its publications and isn’t a governmental establishment with expectations of the very best high quality and self-discipline. I lately printed a broad evaluation of that group’s latest failures on hydrogen for vitality vectors, discovering assumption after assumption that was not supportable by empirical actuality. RMI, whereas influential, isn’t an arm of presidency or a tutorial group.

It’s not the Worldwide Council on Clear Transportation, a company based to determine what would work and what wouldn’t, however which grew to become pot-committed to hydrogen for transportation previously few years and warped actuality to attempt to make the economics work once they don’t, committing apparent error after error. I began taking a look at them resulting from an clearly fatally flawed trucking complete price of possession report which they’ve subsequently quietly utterly modified. Then I appeared and printed on their equally flawed and error stuffed publications on maritime transport and aviation. That group is an NGO funded by effectively which means and wealthy donors within the USA and likewise doesn’t do exterior peer assessment. And it’s not offering direct coverage steerage to the US Congress.

The JRC is way more just like the PIK Potsdam Institute for Local weather Impression Analysis, which was funded many years in the past by two ranges of German authorities to determine what was occurring and what to do about it, has about 400 employees, maintains two main fashions, REMIND and LIME-EU, which it and others use to mannequin alternate options for vitality and decarbonization in Europe, and publishes peer-reviewed materials in good journals. Sadly, their most up-to-date publication managed to get via all the high quality filters with obvious errors within the underlying assumptions. LIMES-EU has €1.67 per kilogram inexperienced hydrogen finish shopper costs for vitality turbines baked in. REMIND has €2 per kilogram inexperienced hydrogen finish shopper costs for business and €3.50 for transportation and enterprise finish use instances.

These are empirically and theoretically unsupportable costs. There isn’t a method for finish shopper costs of hydrogen to be that low after manufacturing, storage, compression / liquification, distribution, pumping, and earnings alongside the worth chain. Assumptions claimed by the paper of 75% of common EU industrial costs for electrical energy alone would have resulted in €8.80 per kilogram only for electrical energy prices, with nothing else included. I printed my evaluation of that research lately as effectively and have really helpful that PIK repair the underlying hydrogen price numbers, rerun the mannequin, and retract the latest report. Additional, this calls into query the standard of all latest PIK publications which rely on LIMES-EU and REMIND mannequin outputs and examine hydrogen to different vitality pathways.

After publication of the PIK research evaluation, a Swedish researcher whose research on complete price of possession of European street freight trucking decarbonization I’m helping with, requested my opinion of the JRC’s 2022 publication, Evaluation of hydrogen supply choices. I dug via that this morning, and I’m deeply dismayed at what I discovered within the underpinnings. This research is as problematic because the PIK’s, and each are governmentally funded, impartial, academically rigorous analysis organizations whose output is handled as authoritative gold in Europe.

What Was The JRC Examine About?

Let’s body the research.

To implement the European Hydrogen Technique you will need to perceive whether or not the transport of hydrogen is price efficient, or whether or not hydrogen ought to be produced the place it’s used. If transporting hydrogen is sensible, a second open query is how lengthy the transport route ought to be for the price of the hydrogen to nonetheless be aggressive with regionally produced hydrogen. 

Thus far, so good. The primary query is an effective one. Can inexperienced hydrogen be made in northern Africa or Ukraine and be transported to western Europe economically? After which, in that case, which transportation pathways are most economical?

If the report had answered the primary query actually, I wouldn’t be scripting this evaluation. Sadly, the authors cooked the books to reach at low-cost delivered hydrogen. Having reviewed their educational {and professional} backgrounds, I can see no method wherein they didn’t know that they have been creating deeply unrealistic outcomes. Why they did so is unclear to me as I don’t know them and I don’t know the JRC, so it’s completely attainable that they have been extremely pressured to get constructive outcomes for supply of hydrogen, and so modified underlying assumptions till the tip worth factors have been sufficient. Or it’s attainable that, just like the ICCT researchers, they fell right into a bubble of inner bias echoing till they actually believed what they professionally are certified to know is nonsense appeared life like.

I make no judgements besides that the ultimate report is fatally flawed and that no insurance policies or methods ought to be primarily based on it.

So, what did the authors do proper? First, they did create a value mannequin for 2 main eventualities and 4 main supply choices. State of affairs A was supply of hydrogen by transmission pipeline or ship 2,500 kilometers to main industrial shoppers. State of affairs B was to take the hydrogen from the tip of the pipeline and to distribute it to 270 hydrogen refueling stations throughout Europe.

They created high and low prices eventualities and the abstract was the place my radar began sending off alarms.

(1) Low worth (Lo), with a manufacturing website electrical energy price of EUR 10/MWh and a consumption website electrical energy price of EUR 50/MWh; (2) Excessive worth (Hello), with a manufacturing website electrical energy price of EUR 50/MWh and a consumption website electrical energy price of EUR 130/MWh. For case A (industrial use of hydrogen), waste warmth at 300°C can be assumed to be accessible, at a value of EUR 20/MWh. […]

For Lo the estimated hydrogen price is EUR 1.5/kg H2, whereas in Hello it’s EUR 3.5/kg H2

The low worth situation assumes electrical energy will probably be accessible for €0.01 per kWh from renewables in Africa or Ukraine and European shoppers will get industrial charges of electrical energy at €0.05 per kW. Neither of those numbers is remotely credible. The excessive price numbers for hydrogen manufacturing in distant areas of €0.05 per kW is a reputable quantity, however the €0.13 per kW is once more not credible. The typical worth of business electrical energy in Europe is €0.21 to €0.24, as I discovered when trying on the ICCT materials in late 2023.

The researchers assert that they’re utilizing Germany’s industrial electrical energy charges, however Statista makes clear that Germany hasn’t had charges that low since 2010. In different phrases, even the excessive worth situation is making unsupportable price claims, and the low worth situation is assuming that the legal guidelines of physics and economics not apply.

A e book I’ve been recommending is Escape from Mannequin Land: How Mathematical Fashions Can Lead Us Astray and What We Can Do About It by Erica Thomson. These outcomes odor like a sample Thomson describes, “Now we have to realize this worth level, so what unrealistic assumptions are required within the mannequin to ship that” with out intervention of human judgement about life like outcomes. That is completely different than what seems to be the case with the PIK researchers, the place reverence of a trusted mannequin precluded skepticism of validation of outcomes, once more a failure of human judgement and professionalism.

However that was solely the abstract and one clear indicator of an issue. The meat of the issues surfaces within the detailed report and its assumptions.

Hydrogen Will Be A lot Extra Costly To Manufacture Than JRC Asserts

Let’s pull aside the assumptions underlying the research, all from the lengthy report which most policymakers won’t learn and even fewer have the competence to evaluate.

The electrolysers are assumed to be working at 35% capability

That’s life like in a distant space the place wind or photo voltaic devoted to hydrogen era are constructed, however they assert that they will be operating alkaline electrolyzers like that, when alkaline electrolyzers simply don’t flip on and off simply or effectively. Even PEM electrolyzers are discovering it very troublesome to take care of intermittency in the actual world versus Mannequin Land.

They take the cheaper alkaline and costlier PEM electrolyzers and common the price of manufacturing, though their assumptions preclude using alkaline electrolyzers. That’s one other thumb on the dimensions of low prices. Given the lengthy background of the research authors in hydrogen, that is onerous to ascribe to a easy mistake.

Then the actual meat begins to reach in Annex 2 p 101 of the lengthy report. They assert electrolyzer prices for PEM at €500 per kW of electrolyzer capability when 2024 prices are US$800 per kW per per the Worldwide Power Company’s latest e-fuels report. Alkaline is at €400 which is shut sufficient to the IEA’s US$400. So as soon as once more, less expensive electrolyzers of the particular sort truly required for the intermittency. They assert that these are 2030 costs and so are asserting virtually 40% price takeout in solely eight years on a product which has been manufactured for many years.

Artificially low-cost electrolyzers is one other thumb on the dimensions for hydrogen.

However there’s no stability of plant. Traditionally, I’ve tended to make use of 1:1 for electrolyzer and stability of plant elements for water administration, dehumidification, purification, and the like, for instance in my price work-up of the deserted Norwegian Equinor-Air Liquide liquid hydrogen transport gasoline plant. Paul Martin, knowledgeable chemical engineer who has labored with hydrogen for many years, a designer of modular chemical engineering vegetation and a co-founder of the Hydrogen Science Coalition has traditionally used 1:1 prices as effectively.

As electrolyzers have dropped in worth, stability of plant has not and gained’t. The opposite 27 or so elements in an industrial hydrogen manufacturing facility are commoditized industrial models which can be already on the flat backside of the expertise curve sigmoid. In consequence, the latest IEA report places PEM at $2,000 with stability of plant and alkaline at $1,700 with stability of plant. That is three to 4 instances extra capital expenditure than the JRC report assumes, and that capital expenditure have to be amortized throughout each kilogram of hydrogen.

A utilization issue of 35% for $2,000 per kW stability of plant for the required PEM electrolysis implies that they’re understating capital prices per kg by greater than an element of 4.

Additional, they assert an amortization interval of 20 years. Nevertheless, electrolyzers solely final a decade earlier than requiring alternative, so this amortization interval is unsupportable in actuality. That’s one other issue of two discount on the capital prices facet per kilogram of hydrogen. I used the 10-year determine in my evaluation of an best possible case hydrogen manufacturing alternative, in Quebec in Canada utilizing their low industrial charges for energy and demand with 95% utilization and alkaline electrolyzers to reach at hydrogen numbers that may allow economically viable manufacturing of inexperienced ammonia for fertilizer. Even that required kicking cryptocurrency miners off of the grid to unlock their energy demand, as new electrical energy provides are double the price of current provide.

After which there are their assumptions in Annex 2 on p 102 about compressors. They’re asserting capex of €170 to 250 million for case A for compressors and upkeep prices of €1,900 to 2,700 thousand for annual upkeep. That’s 1% of capex for annual upkeep of the compressors. For Case B, the numbers are €17 to 25 million capex and €200 to 280 upkeep, once more a ratio of 1%.

Nevertheless, compressors are the one main failing elements in hydrogen vitality pathways. As a part of the Swedish research I’m helping with, I appeared on the upkeep historical past of California’s hydrogen refueling stations. I took the final six months of the six years, post-COVID, when utilization was highest, after lemons would have been eliminated and when upkeep could be anticipated to be optimized.

The statistics confirmed that upkeep prices have been 30% of capex yearly if extrapolated to focus on kilograms per day, that hydrogen refueling stations have been being mounted 20% extra hours than they have been truly pumping hydrogen, and that compressors have been the reason for over 50% of all upkeep points. I printed my evaluation of this just a few weeks in the past, however the knowledge was accessible earlier than the JRC report was printed.

Additional, discussions with knowledgeable who has been engaged in each compressed pure gasoline and hydrogen ventures confirmed that compressor failures are the most important drawback throughout the area. This 2016 US Nationwide Renewable Power Lab research discovered a imply time between failures of solely 49 days for a 400 bar compressor.

Whole price of possession assessments for hydrogen refueling stations have tended to make use of unrealistically low 3% to 4% of capex as the upkeep price per yr for the stations and compressors are the dominant supply of failure. An expert contact shared with me {that a} credible refueling vendor for 350 bar refueling methods informed him to make use of 10% of capex because the annual price in enterprise instances, a significant motive why he didn’t proceed with hydrogen autos for the appliance in query.

There may be zero empirical proof which helps a 1% of capex upkeep fee. At minimal, a 10% of capex for upkeep annual price is defensible and solely simply. That is an order of magnitude out when it comes to low-balling prices.

And as soon as once more, the researchers engaged on this research have been long run hydrogen professionals and in a single case had been accountable previously for operation, upkeep and analysis of hydrogen manufacturing, storage and end-use methods. It’s inconceivable that they thought 1% of capex for upkeep was a reputable quantity.

With the 10% of capex upkeep figures to interchange particularly seals, the compressors are anticipated to have 20-year life spans because the JRC research assumes, but it surely’s unclear if that is an empirically supportable quantity. It’s extra supportable than compressors, so I’ll contemplate it no less than defensible, not like the opposite assumptions.

Are they referencing exterior knowledge and research which assist these very, very low price decisions? No, the tables are rife with “Personal assumption,” “Personal calculation,” or no feedback or sources in any respect.

A way more life like hydrogen manufacturing and transportation research was carried out in 2022, Figuring out the Manufacturing and Transport Price for H2 on a World Scale, by researchers at Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany. What did they conclude for northern Africa manufacturing prices?

The manufacturing price ranges from 6.7—11.4 €/kg H2 (common normal deviation 0.37 €/kg H2), with the bottom price areas being northern Africa and the Center East (7.0—7.5 €/kg)

Notice the ranges and error assertions, issues utterly lacking from the JRC research which makes it seem that dust low-cost hydrogen is assured.

Once I asserted initially of this piece that the authors of the research cooked the books, it’s clearly obvious from each the deeply unrealistic outcomes, but in addition the clear low-balling of price level after price level when business knowledge {and professional} expertise ought to have made it apparent that the outcomes and prices have been unsupportable.

That is clearly a case the place the researchers or their group wanted to reach at a particular worth level for delivered hydrogen, created what seems to be an virtually full and helpful mannequin, after which adjusted assumed prices downward time after time till they arrived at what they felt have been acceptable prices.

There isn’t a world wherein inexperienced hydrogen will price €1.5 /kg H2 to fabricate. The €3.5/kg H2 just isn’t supportable both, as to get prices right down to this degree with 35% utilization they needed to remove stability of plant, make PEM electrolyzers a lot cheaper, common the associated fee throughout alkaline electrolyzers which couldn’t be used, amortize the electrolyzers over double their lifespan, after which slash compressor annual upkeep prices by an element of ten.

Transportation Prices Are A lot Decrease Than IEA & DOE Research

Is there the rest? Sure, to make any of this work they needed to assume that salt caverns could possibly be constructed each on the level of producing the hydrogen and on the finish of the pipeline in Europe. They admit that this may not be truly attainable given the fundamentals of geography the place large salt deposits aren’t uniformly distributed, however they as soon as once more made the most cost effective attainable selection for hydrogen and used that in all of their finish outcomes.

For vehicles, they assumed 500 bar compression, double the traditional US restrict of liquid hydrogen. Exceptions are permitted at as much as 500 bar, however not as the usual for all vehicles. However even at these ranges, the US DOE finds that trucking both liquid or compressed hydrogen may be very costly.

For liquid tanker-based stations, supply prices are calculated to be roughly $11/kg at 450 kg/day and projected to be roughly $8/kg at 1,000 kg/day stations. For tube-trailer gaseous stations, supply prices are projected to be $9.50/kg and $8/kg at 450 kg/day and 1,000 kg/day stations, respectively (2016$)

At no level wherever within the JRC report did the authors spell out the price of trucking hydrogen to hydrogen refueling stations in €/kg delivered, one of many key transport eventualities within the research. This may be an oversight, however given the large thumbs on the scales for hydrogen found up to now, it would very effectively have been deliberately eliminated or by no means added as a result of it could name into query your complete premise of the research.

Their pipeline assumptions are questionable as effectively.

For newly constructed pipelines, relying on measurement and the situation thought of, they vary from 1.Four to three.Four M€/km. If pure gasoline pipelines are repurposed, the prices can drop right down to between 0.2 and 0.6 M€/km

This doesn’t align with latest German research that present that whereas pure gasoline pipelines may be repurposed, they have to be run at significantly decrease pressures and volumes to keep away from points. Paul Martin referred to as that out in an evaluation which confirmed clearly that the report’s summaries have been equally cooked to indicate very constructive outcomes.

And the pipelines outcomes don’t align with IEA research on pipeline prices, one thing the JCR researchers stated themselves.

The [IEA] price for hydrogen distribution by pipeline was given as USD 2 / kg H2 for a distance of three 000 km, which is much greater than the prices assumed in our research (< EUR 1/kg H2, see Determine 8).

In actual fact, their reference worth for delivering hydrogen through pipeline was as little as €0.55 per kg, effectively underneath a 3rd of the IEA’s calculations. As a substitute of leaning into this, they clarify it away with anticipated decrease prices of issues in 2030 and the assertion that unspoken low expertise readiness degree merchandise would come alongside. Just a few thousand kilometers of hydrogen pipelines exist, the physics are effectively understood and the applied sciences in use aren’t going to leap into the longer term. That is an unsupportable assertion as effectively.

That is a part of the place the compressor upkeep issues are available in, as hydrogen pipelines require lots of them operating at a lot greater pressures than pure gasoline pipelines 24/7/365. As a reminder, the DOE discovered that hydrogen compressors fail each 49 days on common.

Given how the research made assumption after assumption in favor of hydrogen, it’s unsurprising that they discover that their supply price assumptions are radically decrease as effectively.

Again to the opposite German report from 2022. What does it say for the price of hydrogen pipelines with life like assumptions?

the pipeline price of 1.4/kg H2 to move H2 from Sharm El-Sheikh to Cologne

Sure, the research discovered 2.5 instances greater prices for pipelines from northern Africa than the JRC research did.

What would the fact of hydrogen manufactured in Africa for supply by pipeline to Europe be? Optimizing manufacturing might carry the value level right down to €5 / kg. The IEA and different research pipeline numbers are way more credible than the JRC numbers, so one other €1.50 / kg could be required for transmission.

The research additionally doesn’t present any prices of transportation of hydrogen by distribution pipeline, simply transmission pipeline prices. On the finish of the transmission pipeline there’s a large salt cavern and hydrogen must be compressed into it. Then it must be extracted and compressed to the appropriate degree for distribution and fed into what could be a set of a lot smaller pipelines. The research is silent on the price of this course of in any €/kg mannequin. Let’s be beneficiant and assume one other €1 / kg.

That may put the extra life like price of hydrogen delivered to industrial amenities at €7.50 / kg with none earnings or price of capital or within the worth vary that Boston Consulting Group believes that inexperienced hydrogen may be manufactured in Europe with inexperienced PPAs that respect additionality, locality, and temporality necessities. If delivered to truck stops, it could price within the order of €14 / MWh earlier than earnings.

This compares to the second German research’s worth level of €8.4 /kg for hydrogen transmitted — however not distributed, taxed or profited off — to Cologne.

For liquid natural hydrogen carriers, a contender for longer distance transport, additionally they make a startling assumption. To make the associated fee case work, they assume:

For Case A (industrial use of hydrogen), it’s assumed that within the supply website there may be the choice to supply waste warmth at 300°C, since in one of these industrial setting waste warmth could also be accessible. Info on the price of waste warmth just isn’t available, so the value was set to a worth significantly decrease than that of warmth offered by NG, at a worth of EUR 20/MWh.

For these unfamiliar with LOHCs, they launch important warmth vitality of their manufacturing and require it in extraction of the hydrogen, roughly a 3rd of the vitality as within the hydrogen or in the identical vary as liquification. That warmth have to be offered and the research didn’t assume electrical energy because the supply, which will probably be costlier than pure gasoline, however that they’d be capable to get warmth very cheaply on the finish.

Sure, they assume 300° C waste warmth will probably be accessible, that there will probably be no different financial makes use of for it and that they’ll be capable to get it actually, actually cheaply, as a result of that’s the belief that’s required to reach on the per kg hydrogen worth level they want for any of this to make sense. That’s not a supportable assumption.

Even so, their unrealistically low quantity for transport hydrogen in LOHC kind, solely €Three per kg, wasn’t the most cost effective possibility and so was dominated out.. As with all of their outcomes, their price level is simply not plausible.

For liquified hydrogen, the purported winner of the transport mannequin for transportation of hydrogen, they make extra startling assumptions.

Whereas ideally suited liquefaction work is beneath 14.Four MJ/kg H2 [54], the vitality requirement of present liquefaction vegetation is within the order of 36-43 MJ/kg H2 [55]. It’s anticipated that with bigger scale vegetation (>50 tonnes/day), the ability necessities could possibly be lowered by as much as 50% (18-22 MJ/kg H2) [55]

The world has been liquifying hydrogen for many years for area packages and a number of industrial use instances. Assuming that the vitality prices to liquify hydrogen right down to a cyrofluid at 20° above absolute zero would drop by 50% by 2030, the timeframe acknowledged within the underlying lengthy report however neither of the 2 summaries, is a fantastical notion and an unsupportable assumption.

With extra life like however nonetheless frankly optimistic assumptions, I labored up a value case for liquid hydrogen transport from Namibia in 2022 and located that the more than likely price per unit of vitality delivered of liquid hydrogen through transport could be ten instances that of liquid pure gasoline, the costliest at the moment imported type of vitality economies use at present. That’s the fact of importing liquid hydrogen.

What would a policymaker who learn the coverage transient assume? That for distance of 10,000 km, it could be attainable for finish shoppers to buy hydrogen delivered through liquid hydrogen transport for maybe €4.50 / kg, assuming that they added up the numbers. As with pipelines, the fact is way greater.

I additionally did the associated fee workup for importing ammonia as an vitality service lately and as soon as once more, actual prices could be a lot greater than JRC’s very optimistic ones. Per the evaluation for Japan’s meant use to displace coal in thermal era models, the best possible attainable case situation with the most cost effective attainable actual world hydrogen could be 9 instances the associated fee per kWh of imported coal.

To be clear, in my assessments I’m frequently giving hydrogen advantages of the doubt as an vitality service and discovering very excessive prices. For JRC’s report back to get underneath the best possible case eventualities I’ve labored up, they should be inventing deeply unrealistic numbers throughout a number of answer units.

What Would Policymakers Take Away From The JRC report?

As at all times, hydrogen may be inexperienced however it might probably’t be low-cost, however what would individuals truly take away from this report?

In the event that they solely learn the splash web page, as most would, they’d see zero numbers and clear assertions that transporting hydrogen lengthy distances could be economically viable. This isn’t good coverage steerage.

For distances appropriate with the European territory, compressed and liquefied hydrogen options, and particularly compressed hydrogen pipelines, provide decrease prices than chemical carriers do. The repurposing of current pure gasoline pipelines for hydrogen use is predicted to considerably decrease the supply price, making the pipeline possibility much more aggressive sooner or later. 

In the event that they solely learn the Science for Coverage Temporary, which might be all of the overwhelming majority of policymakers would do, they’d see some very low numbers in textual content and in a graph.

For Lo the estimated hydrogen price is EUR 1.5/kg H2, whereas in Hello it’s EUR 3.5/kg H2.

Hydrogen delivery costs for 2,500 km by different technical routes by EU JRC
Hydrogen supply prices for two,500 km by completely different technical routes by EU JRC

Most could be left assuming that the low worth of round €2 / kg is probably going and most would seemingly suppose the mixed worth could be someplace within the center, round €3 / kg. Most could be left with the belief that this was the associated fee to get hydrogen to finish shoppers.

Nearly no policymakers will ever take a look at the lengthy report and its tables and tables of assumptions or have the competence to evaluate the standard of these assumptions.

The research first radically diminishes the prices of each manufacturing and transport hydrogen utilizing assumptions with giant error bars, presents numbers which can be effectively beneath life like numbers with none error bars, then doesn’t inform policymakers that the numbers are extremely weak primarily based on absurdly optimistic assumptions and disagree utterly with publicly accessible knowledge together with the IEA, the US DOE and different credible peer reviewed research.

The 2 summaries clearly make it seem as if low-cost hydrogen imports from 1000’s of kilometers away is economically viable. That’s the elemental message coverage makers could be left with.

Let’s End On A Humorous Notice

There was one factor that didn’t depress me about this fatally flawed research. On web page 30 of the lengthy report relating to delivering hydrogen by modes apart from pipeline they are saying:

Biodiesel is the gasoline selection for ships, diesel trains, and vehicles.

They will ship inexperienced hydrogen 2,500 km to 270 hydrogen refueling stations to place in heavy items autos as a result of it’s required, however your complete provide chain for delivering it is going to be biodiesel as a result of that’s an affordable, low price, low-GHG possibility. The cognitive dissonance as they wrote this will need to have cut up their skulls.

Once I learn that it was 5 minutes earlier than I might carry myself to proceed my evaluation. They actually know and asserted the actual reply for transportation that may’t immediately electrify, used it of their assumptions, after which pretended it wasn’t related to the findings of the report.

Equally, all through the report they use electrical energy for compression, heating, transportation, and all the pieces else, however assert that hydrogen is required for vitality within the EU. It’s painful to learn, for essentially the most half.

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